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Version: 3.x

Contributing

We welcome all contributions to Saleor, including issues, new features, docs, discussions, and more. Read the following document to learn more about the process of contribution.

Issues

Use Github Issues to report a bug or problem you found in Saleor. Use the "Bug report" issue template to provide information that will help us confirm the bug, such as steps to reproduce, expected behavior, the Saleor version, and any additional context. When our team confirms a bug, it will be added to the internal backlog and picked up as soon as possible. When willing to fix a bug, let us know in the issue comment, and we will try to assist you on the way. The new version unifies error handling across the API. All mutation responses have an errors field. It contains detailed information about the issue(s). For example:

New features

When willing to propose or add a new feature, we encourage you first to open a discussion or an issue (using the "Feature request" template) to discuss it with the core team. This process helps us decide whether a feature is suitable for Saleor or refine it before implementation starts.

Before merging, the core team must review and approve any new pull requests submitted to Saleor. We review pull requests daily, but if a pull request requires more time or feedback from the team, it will be marked as "queued for review".

Managing dependencies

Poetry

To guarantee repeatable installations, all project dependencies are managed using Poetry. The project’s direct dependencies are listed in pyproject.toml. Running poetry lock generates poetry.lock, which has all versions pinned.

You can install Poetry by using pip install --pre poetry or by following the official installation guide here. We recommend using at least version 1.0.0b as it contains many fixes and features that Saleor relies on.

tip

We recommend that you use this workflow and keep pyproject.toml and poetry.lock under version control to ensure that all computers and environments run the same code.

Other tools

For compatibility, Saleor also provides requirements.txt and requirements_dev.txt.

These files should be updated by running poetry export --without-hashes -f requirements.txt -o requirements.txt and poetry export --without-hashes -f requirements.txt -o requirements_dev.txt --dev, respectively.

File structure

We are using a standard Django structure - every app has its own directory, where you can find:

  • migrations directory
  • management directory
  • models
  • utils - that keeps some functions of general utility related to this module
  • error codes - the definitions of errors that might have appeared
  • tests directory - that contains related tests, etc.

API file structure

The API files are in saleor/graphql/ directory. Every app has its own directory inside with:

  • schema.py - with definitions of queries and mutations
  • sorters.py - with definitions of sorters
  • filters.py - with definitions of filters
  • types.py - with definitions of corresponding types
  • enums.py - with related enums
  • dataloaders.py - with data loaders for the given module
  • mutations file or directory
  • tests directory

We aim to have a mutations directory in every module with a file per every mutation, as in the checkout directory. See an example below:

.
└── saleor
└── graphql
└── checkout
├── mutations
│ └── checkout_create.py
│ └── checkout_complete.py
└── schema.py

Tests file structure

We keep tests in the tests directory. We want to keep queries and mutations in separate directories with a single file for every query and mutation. After joining it with the previous example, it would look like this:

.
└── saleor
└── graphql
└── checkout
├── mutations
│   └── checkout_create.py
│ └── checkout_complete.py
├── schema.py
└── tests
├── mutations
│   ├── test_checkout_complete.py
│   └── test_checkout_create.py
└── queries
└── test_checkout.py
└── test_checkouts.py

Testing

Testing is an essential part of every project. In Saleor, we're using the pytest library and mostly have unit tests.

To reduce tests execution time, we use pytest-xdist that allows running tests on more than one CPU. By default, we use -n=auto, which creates a separate process equal to the number of available CPUs.

We are also using pytest-socket to ensure that our tests do not hit any external API without explicitly allowing this.

The test file structure was introduced in the tests file structure. The main rule is not to overload test files. Smaller files are always preferable over big ones where lots of logic is tested, and it's hard to extend. In the case of testing the API, we would like to split all tests into mutations and queries sections and test every query and mutation in a separate file.

How to run tests?

To run tests, just enter pytest in your terminal.

pytest

To speed testing time, we recommend using the reuse-db flag.

pytest --reuse-db

How to run particular tests?

As running all tests is quite time-consuming, sometimes you would like to run only tests from one dictionary or even just a particular test. You can use the following command for that. In the case of a particular directory or file, provide the path after the pytest command, like:

pytest --reuse-db saleor/graphql/app/tests

If you want to run a particular test, you need to provide the path to the file where the test is and the file name after the :: sign. In the case of running a single test, it's also worth using the -n0 flag to run the test only in one thread. It will significantly decrease time. See an example below:

pytest --reuse-db saleor/graphql/app/tests/mutations/test_app_create.py::test_app_create_mutation -n0

Using pdb when testing

If you would like to use pdb in code when running a test, you need to use a few flags -n0 to one test in a single thread, -s to disable capturing standard output by pytest, and --allow-hosts with a default port, as we disabled sockets by default. So the previous example will look like this:

pytest --reuse-db saleor/graphql/app/tests/mutations/test_app_create.py::test_app_create_mutation -n0 -s --allow-hosts=127.0.0.1

Recording cassettes

Some of our tests use VCR.py cassettes to record requests and responses from external APIs. To record one, you need to use the vcr-record flag and specify allow-hosts:

pytest --vcr-record=once saleor/app/tests/test_app_commands.py --allow-hosts=127.0.0.1

Writing benchmark tests

The benchmark tests allow us to keep track of several database queries for mutations and queries. Tests should be added for every new mutation or query for objects. The benchmark tests are in benchmark directory, every test must be marked with pytest.mark.django_db and pytest.mark.count_queries(autouse=False) decorators and must have count_queries argument. For more details, check pytest-django-queries package.

@pytest.mark.django_db
@pytest.mark.count_queries(autouse=False)
def test_apps_for_federation_query_count(
staff_api_client,
permission_manage_apps,
django_assert_num_queries,
count_queries,
):
...

To check the number of queries, run the benchmark test, and after that, call the following command in your terminal:

django-queries show

You will see the number of queries that were performed for each test in every file.

Given, when, then

It's recommended to use given, when, then to distinguish between different test parts. It significantly improves test readability and clarifies what you are testing.

Don't be afraid of docstrings

Use docstring, especially for more complicated tests. Describe what is tested and what is the expected behavior. Usually, the test name describes what we are testing, but the name is often not enough to explain all expected behavior. Also, it will help to see that the test should be split into two, as it tests too much logic at once. In addition, it's beneficial in test maintenance.

Coding style

Saleor uses various tools to maintain a standard coding style and help with development. To install all the development tools, run the following commands:

python -m pip install -r requirements_dev.txt

or use poetry:

poetry install

Saleor uses the pre-commit tool to check and automatically fix any formatting issues before creating a git commit.

Run the following command to install pre-commit into your git hooks and have it run on every commit:

pre-commit install

For more information on how it works, see the .pre-commit-config.yaml configuration file.

Saleor has a strict formatting policy enforced by the black formatting tool.

Module names should make their purpose obvious. Avoid generic file names such as utils.py.

Linters

Use black to make sure your code is correctly formatted.

Use isort to maintain consistent imports.

Use pylint with the pylint-django plugin to catch errors in your code.

Use pycodestyle to make sure your code adheres to PEP 8.

Use pydocstyle to check that your docstrings are properly formatted.

EditorConfig

EditorConfig is a standard configuration file that aims to ensure consistent style across multiple programming environments.

Saleor’s repository contains an .editorconfig file describing our formatting requirements.

Most editors and IDEs support this file either directly or via plugins. See the list of supported editors and IDEs for detailed instructions.

If you ensure that your programming environment respects the contents of this file, you will automatically get correct indentation, encoding, and line endings.

Tips and recommendation

Here are some tips and recommendations for limiting the number of comments to your PR. If you follow those rules, both sides will be happy.

Imports

Use relative imports.

Models

  • The UUID is the preferred type of PK for the main models, especially for models that keep sensitive data.
  • Use created_at field name for creation date time and updated_at for update date time.
  • The new models should have a default sorting value set. It ensures that data is always returned in the same order and prevent flaky tests.

Migrations

Try to combine multiple migrations into one, but remember not to mix changes on the database with updating rows in migrations. In other words, operations that alter tables and use RunPython to run methods on existing data should be in separate files.

Utility functions

Utility function specific for the API should go to the graphql directory, otherwise to the main module directory, usually to the utils.py file. Try to find a name as descriptive as possible when writing such a method. Also, do not forget about the docstring, especially in a complicated function.

Searching

So far, we have mainly used the GinIndex and ilike operators for searching, but currently, we are testing a new solution with the use of SearchVector and SearchRank. You can find it in this PR #9344.

API

  • Use id for mutation inputs instead of model_name_id.
  • Use created_at field name for creation date time and updated_at for update date time.

API field descriptions

Every mutation, mutation field, and type field should have a short, meaningful description ending with a dot. Also, we labeled every new field with info in which version it was introduced, and when it's a new feature, we added the preview feature label. The labels ADDED_IN_X and PREVIEW_FEATURE should be at the end of the description. All labels can be found in saleor/graphql/core/descriptions.py.

When we would like to remove the API field, we mark it first as DEPRECATED. In a field definition, there is a dedicated argument for that: deprecation_reason, but for mutation arguments, we use DEPRECATED_IN_X_INPUT label in the description.

How to define permissions in queries/mutations?

To define permission in queries, use the permission_required decorator to provide one or multiple permissions that are required or the one_of_permissions_required decorator that allows a user with at least one permission to perform the action.

In the case of mutations, the permissions are defined in the Meta arguments in the permissions field. To represent all permissions, in the same way, we introduced the AuthorizationFilters enum that represents permission checks that are based on functions instead of named admin permission scopes. When raising PermissionDenied, the error should mention which permissions are required to perform the given action.

note

Required permissions should be mentioned in the GraphQL description.

Error codes

New mutations should always have their error class. Example: instead of using generic PaymentErrorCode, for PaymentCreate mutation we could have PaymentCreateErrorCode. The frontend will get a list of error codes that could be triggered by this mutation instead of the list of all errors that could be raised by ALL payment mutations.

The error classes are defined in the saleor/graphql/core/types/common.py file. You will need the graphql enum with error codes to create the new one. First, create a new enum in the error_codes.py file in the main app directory. Then use it to create a graphql enum in the saleor/graphql/core/enums.py file. When defining a graphql enum, you could specify the enum type name and attach the description, for example, the enum docstring, as is shown below.

AppTypeEnum = to_enum(
AppType,
type_name="AppTypeEnum",
description=AppType.__doc__,
)

Now you are ready to define the error class. The class must inherit from Error and have a code field. All other fields are optional but could be helpful to specify what inputs raised an error. Here is an example:

class AppError(Error):
code = AppErrorCode(description="The error code.", required=True)
permissions = NonNullList(
PermissionEnum,
description="List of permissions which causes the error.",
required=False,
)

Sorting and filtering

To allow sorting of the queryset, you must create the SortInputObjectType and corresponding sorting enum, and it should go to the dedicated sorters.py file in the given app module in the API.

class AppSortField(graphene.Enum):
NAME = ["name", "pk"]
CREATION_DATE = ["created", "name", "pk"]

@property
def description(self):
if self.name in AppSortField.__enum__._member_names_:
sort_name = self.name.lower().replace("_", " ")
return f"Sort apps by {sort_name}."
raise ValueError("Unsupported enum value: %s" % self.value)


class AppSortingInput(SortInputObjectType):
class Meta:
sort_enum = AppSortField
type_name = "apps"
warning

Remember, the list with sorting order must have a unique field.

tip

Sometimes you would like to sort the data by some field that should be calculated, which isn't the model field. There is an option for that; you need to create a method whose name starts with qs_with followed by a sort field name in lowercase. The method should annotate the queryset to contain the new value. Look at the example:

class CollectionSortField(graphene.Enum):
NAME = ["name", "slug"]
PRODUCT_COUNT = ["product_count", "slug"]

@property
def description(self):
if self.name in CollectionSortField.__enum__._member_names_:
sort_name = self.name.lower().replace("_", " ")
return f"Sort collections by {sort_name}."
raise ValueError("Unsupported enum value: %s" % self.value)

@staticmethod
def qs_with_product_count(queryset: QuerySet, **_kwargs) -> QuerySet:
return queryset.annotate(product_count=Count("collectionproduct__id"))

Similar situation is for filtering, you need to create FilterInputObjectType and django FilterSet in dedicated filters.py file.

class AppFilterInput(FilterInputObjectType):
class Meta:
filterset_class = AppFilter


class AppFilter(django_filters.FilterSet):
type = EnumFilter(input_class=AppTypeEnum, method=filter_app_type)
search = django_filters.CharFilter(method=filter_app_search)
is_active = django_filters.BooleanFilter()

class Meta:
model = models.App
fields = ["search", "is_active"]

Next, you need to create the CountableConnection for a given query:

class AppCountableConnection(CountableConnection):
class Meta:
node = App

Then in the schema.py file, you need to change the corresponding query. It must be a FilterConnectionField with created connection field, sorting input must be used in the sort_by argument, and filter input in the filter argument of the query:

class AppQueries(graphene.ObjectType):
apps = FilterConnectionField(
AppCountableConnection,
filter=AppFilterInput(description="Filtering options for apps."),
sort_by=AppSortingInput(description="Sort apps."),
description="List of the apps.",
)

How to handle breaking changes?

  • provide compatibility layer by supporting two solutions for a specified time period and removing it in the next major version
  • deprecate API fields instead of removing them

Git commit messages

To speed up the review process and to keep the logs tidy, we recommend the following simple rules on how to write good commit messages:

Summary line

  • It should contain less than 50 characters. It is best to make it short
  • Introduce what has changed, using imperatives: fix, add, modify, etc.

Description

  • Add extra explanation if you feel it will help others to understand the summary content
  • If you want, use bullet points (each bullet beginning with a hyphen or an asterisk)
  • Avoid writing in one line. Use line breaks, so the reader does not have to scroll horizontally
tip

To ease review, try to limit your commits to a single, self-contained issue. This will also help others to understand and manage them in the future.

For more information and tips on how to write good commit messages, see the GitHub guide.

Pull requests

Remember to add a meaningful title and a good description when you open a pull request. Please describe what is changing, the reason for doing that, or what problem it fixes. If it resolves a GitHub issue, please link it. Wait for all actions to be performed, and if all is green, request the saleor/core group for review.

Changelog

We have a CHANGELOG.md file where we keep the info about the introduced changes. The file contains separate parts for every release. New items should be put under the Unreleased section. This section is split into Breaking changes and Other changes. The changelog entry should consist of the name of the PR, the PR number, and the author's name. It may also contain an additional explanation. Here is an example:

- Add multichannel - #6242 by @exampleUser

What is considered as a breaking change?

Here is a complete list of changes that we consider breaking:

  • deleting a field from the graphql schema / renaming the field name
  • deleting the field from webhook payload / changing the name of the returned field
  • changing signatures of plugins functions (PluginsManager) - breaking only for existing plugins
  • adding new validation in a mutation logic - it may break storefronts and apps
  • changing of the API behavior even if the schema doesn't change - e.g. the type of field hasn't changed but the requirements for value has

Any change that is not specified there should go to Other changes section.

I'm adding a fix to just merged feature, should I add a changelog record for that?

The changelog shouldn't reflect the history of building a feature, but it should provide the information for other developers that an actual feature was added. If the feature wasn't released, and you believe the PR number of the fix is worth mentioning, the existing changelog entry should be extended:

- Add multichannel - #6242, #6250 by @exampleUser

If the fix is not crucial, it shouldn't be mentioned separately.

If a feature was already released, you can add a separate changelog entry just to mention a regular bugfix.